STUDY GROUP NOTES:to be covered on 12/16/02 7 pm at Dr. Galante,s Office 31 Cragmere Road Suffern, NY BACK TO NEWSLETTER
Pharyngitis from Morrison's Desktop Companion
Some important issues confront us when we consider treating throat infections with homeopathy rather than conventional medications. First of all, we often do not know the full extent of the condition. Is it simply a viral pharyngitis or a reaction to post-nasal drainage? What approach do we wish to take if the patient has a strep throat? After these decisions we must still find the correct remedy!
The vast majority of acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis cases are self-limited viral infections. The issue becomes more sticky when we are faced with a true strep throat. Though homeopathic treatment is effective in relieving the symptoms of throat pain, and though I know of no cases where rheumatic fever has occurred after homeopathic treatment of strep throat, there are no studies proving that homeopathy prevents the serious sequelae of streptococcal infection. Therefore, though I do not recommend withholding homeopathic treatment in strep throat cases, the patient should be made aware of these serious complications: Rheumatic fever. Nephritis. Rheumatic heart disease. Many patients when faced with these facts will decide to take antibiotics for the condition and should not be dissuaded. It is frustrating to know that the condition can be easily remedied, is very unlikely to cause any further trouble and yet antibiotics (which generally interfere with constitutional treatment) must still be used. The medicolegal issues are also not to be ignored.
In the beginning of this century and before, homeopaths were in an almost daily struggle with life-threatening throat infections: Diphtheria. Syphilis. Strep throat. A vast amount of time and energy went into gaining the knowledge and experience to deal with these illnesses which no longer confront us. Vithoulkas once said, "There are no new diseases and no lost ones, only new diagnoses and deeper, suppressed forms. The disappearing polio-related paralysis of our past is revisited in the recent proliferation of multiple sclerosis; the wasting of tuberculosis is reborn in AIDS." Thus, we must be prepared for the return of aggressive throat inflammation in the future, especially with antibiotic resistance on the rise.
The first question we must ask ourselves when confronting a case of pharyngitis is whether this is a case for homeopathic treatment. Low-grade infections with only general characteristics - pain on swallowing, rawness in the throat, etc. - are not good candidates for homeopathy. Other conditions such as diphtheria or peritonsillar abscess can be treated effectively by homeopathy but such treatment should not be done without great precautions and consultation with specialists.
For most cases of acute pharyngitis a 30C potency given in 3 or 4 doses is sufficient to resolve the condition. In cases which are more chronic (e.g. recurring cases) or more aggressive (e.g. peritonsillar abscess), higher potencies are needed.
Do not give a remedy until the picture is clear. Many times from the desire to help or in response to patient demands, we give a remedy before we know either the nature of the condition or the full symptoms. We hear one clear modality - such as right-sided pain - and we almost by reflex give a remedy such as Lycopodium. The result is that the pain switches to the left side but the remedy is not truly curative.
We must force ourselves to wait until the full symptoms come out. If the condition resolves before a remedy is given, then a remedy was not required. If the condition worsens, it would have done so in any case with a wrong remedy, but the symptoms would have been obscured - making a good prescription impossible.
If the constitutional remedy is known, giving this remedy in a low potency such as 12C or 30C two or three times daily may effectively abort the infection, even if the symptoms of the acute illness are only partially covered by the remedy.
There are several effective means for pacifying both the pains and the patient's anxiety that "something must be done." These include: Warm drinks. Slippery elm bark ("Throat-coat") tea. Chewable zinc lozenges (25 mg. BID). Vitamin C (1000 mg. BID). Echinacea tincture (15 drops in liquid BID).
Other adjunctive therapies include: Gargling with salt water (1 tsp. in 1 cup of warm water). Hydrotherapy (soak a towel in cold water, wrap the throat and cover with a warm, dry towel and leave in place for 20 minutes while lying). Cod liver oil (1 tsp. daily).
Be wary of the more serious condition, peritonsillar abscess. The presence of trismus (unwillingness to swallow saliva) should immediately bring this condition to mind. In this condition, homeopathic treatment should be given at the same time that appropriate allopathic consultation is sought.
Most of the useful rubrics are to be found in the section, "Throat, Pain" and its many subrubrics. Our repertories place much emphasis on symptoms relating to diphtheria, a disease which greatly preoccupied our predecessors but which is virtually unknown in our culture.
Other throat rubrics
Throat, Caseous deposits.
Throat, Discoloration (many subrubrics).
Throat, Enlargement, Tonsils.
Throat, Inflammation (many subrubrics).
Throat, Inflammation, Phlegmonous (Peritonsillar abscess).
Throat, Swelling, Tonsils.
External Throat, Induration, Glands, of.
External Throat, Pain, Cervical Glands.
External Throat, Pain, Burning, Cervical Glands.
External Throat, Swelling, Cervical Glands.
External Throat, Swelling, Cervical Glands, hard.
Other related rubrics
Mind, Delirium, Ulcers in fauces and tonsils, with.
Mind, Excitement, Examination of throat, too great to allow.
Mind, Fear, Choking, Inflammation of throat, in.
Mind, Sadness, Sore throat, in.
Mind, Unconsciousness, Sore throat, during.
Eye, Inflammation, Alternating, Sore throat, with.
Eye, Pain, Throat symptoms, with.
Ear, Pain, Sore throat, with.
Ear, Pain, Extending, throat, to.
Ear, Pain, Stitching, Extending, Throat, to.
Hearing, Impaired, Enlarged tonsils, from.
Hearing, Impaired, Hypertrophied tonsils and adenoids, from.
Nose, Coryza, Sore throat, with.
Mouth, Herpes, Mouth, tonsils and throat, in.
Mouth, Protruded, Tongue, Difficult, Sore throat, with.
Mouth, Salivation, Copious, Abscess in throat, with.
Mouth, Ulcers, Extending, Throat to roof of mouth.
Taste, Putrid, Pharynx, Hawking up mucus.
Stomach, Pain, Alternating, Pain, Pharynx, in.
Cough, Mucus, Throat, in.
Cough, Tickling, Throat, from.
Respiration, Difficult, Enlargement of tonsils, from.
Respiration, Impeded, Swelling, Tonsils, of.
Chest, Pain, Sternum, Alternating, Sore throat, with.
Back, Drawn over to one side, Sore throat, in.
Extremities, Perspiration, Foot, Suppressed, Throat affections from.
Sleep, Sleeplessness, Soreness, Mouth and throat, in.
Sleep, Yawning, Constriction of throat, from.
Chill, Concomitant, Throat pain, as.
Generalities, Convulsions, Throat irritation, from.
The most important remedy in acute tonsillitis with rapid onset.
Throat: Mainly right-sided inflammation and burning.
Pharynx and tonsils bright red, swollen and angry. Aphthae.
Worse: Slightest touch of throat. Turning head. Motion.
Swallowing, especially liquids. Clearing the throat. Cold air.
Also considered a remedy for peritonsillar abscess.
Local: Tongue red or with a "strawberry" appearance.
General: High fever, flushed face, mydriasis, cold hands and feet.
More advanced pharyngitis and tonsillitis usually suppurative.
Throat: Exquisite sharp pains, often like splinters in the throat.
Worse: Evening or night. Cold air. Cold drinks or food.
Yawning, stretching or turning the head. Swallowing.
Better: Warmth and warm drinks.
Pain radiates to ears upon swallowing.
Ulcerations of the throat.
One of the main remedies in peritonsillar abscess.
General: Patient feels he must keep bundled, especially covers the throat.
For everything from mild sore throat to serious inflammation or abscess.
Throat: Left-sided pharyngitis or tonsillitis.
Inflammation begins on the left and goes to the right side.
Tonsils swollen, deep red or even purple.
Uvula swollen. Peritonsillar abscess.
Advanced cases with ulceration, excoriation or oozing blood.
Worse: Night in sleep or morning on waking.
On swallowing, yet constant desire to swallow (Merc-C).
Sweets or acids. Warm drinks.
Coughing or clearing the throat.
Touching the throat. Turning the head. Tight collars.
Better: Cold drinks. Better (for only moments) after swallowing.
Easier to swallow solids than liquids or saliva.
Lump or constricting sensation, returns just after swallowing.
General: Warm-blooded. Complaints in heat or from change of season.
Right-sided pharyngitis or tonsillitis or beginning on right side.
Worse: Afternoon from 4 to 8 PM.
Better: Warm drinks, sometimes better cold drinks.
Acute or recurring pharyngitis or tonsillitis of any degree of severity.
Throat: Suppurative and dirty pharynx and tonsils, often right side.
Ulceration. Peritonsillar abscess.
Sensation of an apple core lodged in the throat.
Worse: Night. Heat of the bed. Heat or cold.
Swallowing, especially empty swallowing. Coughing.
Local: Tongue is coated and dirty-appearing.
Metallic taste on tongue.
Tongue swollen and teeth leave imprints.
Breath is almost always offensive.
Increased saliva, especially at night.
General: Both chilly and overheated.
Night sweats lasting all night long.
Swollen, painful, burning cervical lymph nodes.
Mercurius iodatus flavus
Right-sided pharyngitis or tonsillitis, slower onset than Belladonna.
Pain beginning on the right side and moving to left side.
Similar to Mercurius though may lack salivation as a characteristic.
Mercurius iodatus ruber
Left-sided pharyngitis or tonsillitis.
Has most of the modalities of Mercurius Vivus, though less salivation.
More frequently indicated than Merc-I-F.
Other important remedies
Sudden onset of sore throat after exposure to cold or cold, dry winds.
General: High fever, flush, restlessness and often anxiety or fear.
Pharynx and tonsils bright red without pus: burning and mildly swollen.
Painful swallowing though intensely thirsty for cold drinks.
Severe pharyngitis and tonsillitis with approaching sepsis.
Throat: Deep red or even purple color.
Deep ulcers on tonsils, especially the left side.
Stuporous, confused, delirious.
Burning (less often stinging) sore throat, with marked redness.
Throat: Pain, inflammation and swelling, mainly on the right side.
Tremendous swelling, especially of the uvula but also tonsils.
Mucosa bright red and glistening.
Worse: Heat and hot drinks. Warm rooms.
Better: Cold food or drinks though not much thirst.
General: Often high fever; dry heat alternating with chills.
Raw sore throat, often chronic, with mucus draining into throat.
Pain on coughing.
Worse: Exhaling. Swallowing. Yawning.
Hoarseness; especially in performers.
Stitching or splinter-like pains in the throat.
Throat: Pain worse on the right side.
Worse: Inhaling over the raw spots. Swallowing.
Better: Cold drinks or cold air.
Thick mucus in throat; much clearing of throat.
Often accompanied by laryngitis and hoarseness.
Burning pain in the throat, often with small ulcerations or vesicles.
Throat: Right-sided burning pain, better from heat.
Worse: Cold or cold drinks.
Better: Warmth. Warm drinks.
Marked or even malignant inflammation, though swelling is mild.
Burning ulcers of mouth and throat.
Tongue almost always with a milky white coating.
Patient invariably chilly, often anxious or restless. Baptisia Tinctoria
Inflammation, remarkably painless, of pharynx and tonsils.
Throat: Tonsils and uvula enlarged, deep red or even purplish.
Mouth horribly offensive, tongue dirty, ulcerated throughout.
Face flushed and heavy; dull and confused. Septic states.
Chronic and recurring tonsillitis, especially in children.
Throat: Tonsils hugely swollen, even if inflammation appears mild.
Worse: Night. Speaking.
Marked pain on swallowing, especially empty swallowing.
Pain or burning prevents swallowing of any solids. Trismus.
Large, hard cervical glands.
Hearing loss from huge tonsils and adenoids.
Hugely swollen and inflamed tonsils, often suppurative.
Throat: Pain and swelling often worse on the right side.
Worse: After catching cold.
Better: Cold drinks.
Almost always accompanied by markedly swollen, painful cervical glands.
Left-sided pharyngitis or tonsillitis, often with inflamed larynx.
Throat: Clarke describes the throat as having a "net-like" redness.
Worse: Heat or in the summertime.
Stone-hard, swollen cervical glands.
Sore throat after catching cold.
Throat: Pharynx dark red; tongue coated white or brownish.
Worse: Any motion - swallowing, coughing, speaking.
Local: Tongue dry, coated a brown or dirty color in the center.
General: Sluggish inexorable onset with high fever.
Marked thirst, irritability, desire to be left alone.
Recurring pharyngitis and tonsillitis with marked swelling of glands.
Worse: Cold weather. Change of weather. Damp weather.
After eating. Menses.
Hard, painful cervical glands.
General: Chilly, sweaty, works into exhaustion and illness.
Sore throat associated with laryngitis.
Mucus in pharynx or larynx with constant desire to clear throat.
Pharyngitis or tonsillitis with ear pain, especially infants and toddlers.
Better: Warmth and from hot drinks.
Worse: Swallowing, from examining the throat.
Irritable and flushed, especially one cheek or the other.
Recurring colds and pharyngitis with burning pains.
Throat: Pain worse every inhalation, especially of cold air.
Dryness of throat ameliorated by constant swallowing or sipping.
Marked swelling of cervical glands.
Patient is chilly and worse all winter long.
Pharyngitis coming on in cold weather, especially cold, damp weather.
Sore throat from catching cold.
Tonsillitis; hot, markedly inflamed or even ulcerated throat.
High fever almost always present; patient prostrated.
No localizing symptoms or modalities.
Throat inflamed, gradually worsening over several days.
Throat: Pain extends to the ear on swallowing.
Pain on swallowing; throat feels too weak to swallow.
Worse: Warm food.
Patient weak, chills up the back, thirstless, droopy eyelids.
Acute pharyngitis with small aphthous sores all through throat.
Throat: Pain and lump or foreign body sensation. Especially right-sided.
Better: Only while or just after swallowing. Cold drinks.
Constant desire to swallow for relief.
Painful submaxillary glands, worse moving the head.
Marked inflammation of pharynx, generally with much post-nasal mucus.
Throat: Swelling of tonsils and uvula.
Ulcerations of the throat.
Marked pain at root of tongue on protruding tongue.
Worse: Evening. Coughing. Swallowing. Talking.
General: Warm-blooded and better from cool air.
Inflamed tonsils and pharynx, to point of ulcers and suppuration.
Throat: One of the main remedies in past times for diphtheria.
Pain alternates sides or location.
Worse: Warm drinks. During menses. Begins and ends with menses.
Better: Cold drinks.
Pains extend to the ears on swallowing.
An old keynote: Membrane on throat pearly white and shiny.
Lump sensation often distinctly on one side, with throat inflammation.
Aggressive forms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
Throat: Spreading, painful and bleeding ulcers.
Horrible burning pains, extending to the ears.
Worse: Swallowing, especially liquids. Pressure on the throat.
Burning pains which are worse from cold drinks (Ars).
Constant desire to swallow though it causes intolerable pain.
Swelling causes a feeling of suffocation.
Particularly virulent pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
Swelling, ulceration and grayish discharge.
Necrosis of the tissues of the throat and palate.
Horrible pain, often stitching or described "as if a fish bone in throat."
Throat: Indurated, dark red tonsils and pharynx. Ulceration.
Worse: Swallowing, lowers head in order to swallow.
Cold air. Becoming chilled. Coughing.
Pain may extend to ears especially on swallowing.
Local: Offensive breath (similar to Mercurius but without salivation).
Cracks at corners of mouth or on tongue.
General: Offensive perspiration. Irritable and demanding.
Upper respiratory infections settling in throat.
Throat: Pain in throat extends to ears on swallowing.
Worse: Coughing or swallowing.
Sensitive to the slightest draft or movement of air even when covered.
Rawness in throat with marked hoarseness.
Throat: Marked swelling of the tonsils or uvula.
Worse: Cold air. Talking. Coughing or sneezing. Yawning.
Better: Cold drinks.
Colds descend to chest and throat.
Burning or soreness in throat, tonsils or root of the tongue.
Throat: Often described as "a burning ball of iron" stuck in throat.
Dark or purple inflamed tonsils. Peritonsillar abscess.
Diphtheria keynote: Membrane gray, looking like dry leather.
Worse: Right side; aggravated upon turning head to the left.
Night. Touch. Hot drinks. Cannot swallow a hot drink.
Better: Becoming cold. Cold drinks.
Pain extends to ears upon swallowing. Shooting pains in ears.
Hard and painful cervical glands.
Pharyngitis from catching cold.
Throat:Fullness or swelling sensation.
Thick greenish nasal discharge.
In influenza and colds with annoying sore throats and vesiculation.
Throat: Pains begin on the left and extend to the right side.
Worse: Comes on during cold, damp weather. Straining voice.
Better: Warm drinks. Swallowing.
Pain on first swallowing, better after several gulps are down.
Local: Associated with hoarseness and laryngitis.
Tongue coated white, red tip to tongue, like a red triangle.
General: Aching and restlessness, better motion and warmth.
Often left-sided pharyngitis or beginning on the left side.
Throat: Colds with tremendous sneezing and sore throat.
Better: Warm drinks.
Worse: Breathing cold air. Protruding tongue.
Recurring or chronic inflammation and swelling of throat and tonsils.
Throat: Nearly always with some purulence. Suppuration of tonsils.
Advanced infections. Peritonsillar abscess.
Worse: On becoming cold. Swallowing.
Hawking of putrid lumps of pus.
Stitching, pin-like or splinter-like pain in the throat.
Enlarged and very hard cervical glands.
Sore throat or tonsillitis, often after several remedies have failed.
Throat: Marked burning, rawness and dryness of throat.
Better: Warm drinks (opposite usual modality).
Old, lingering throat infections with offensive breath.
Suppuration. Peritonsillar abscess.
Local: Lips bright red and often chapped.
General: Sweaty, disheveled, greasy hair.
Chilled easily but averse to warm rooms.
Many thyroid conditions can be alleviated with homeopathic treatment. Hypothyroidism is less responsive than hyperthyroidism in many cases because the preceding thyroiditis actually destroys the gland tissue. However, when thyroiditis can be treated in the early phase, good results are possible. It is important to understand and follow thyroid hormone blood levels while treating these patients or to work with a supportive specialist who can assist in the evaluation of the patient.
12/9/02 study group notes Influenza - From Morrison's Desktop Companion
Worldwide influenza remains one of the leading causes of death, especially in the elderly and in people with compromised respiratory systems. Additionally, we see patients not infrequently who can date the onset of their long-term health conditions to a previous influenza - especially asthma and chronic fatigue syndrome. In the great influenza epidemic of 1918, many homeopaths reported fantastic results with almost no deaths occurring in patients under exclusively homeopathic treatment. The correct homeopathic remedy can help the patient to resolve an influenza more rapidly than seems credible.
The broad use of the influenza vaccine, though affecting the expression of the disease, has far from eradicated the illness because of the well-known capacity of the virus to mutate. Even many allopaths are not impressed with this vaccine which is aimed at strains of the virus already passed. Long-term consequences of the vaccine are not known. I have personally observed only a few cases of long-term health problems resulting from influenza immunization reactions. This number probably corresponds to the number who would have developed long-term health problems from the disease.
In our classic texts we see descriptions of "influenza" of a much more virulent type than generally found today. Many of these conditions would be described as viral pneumonias, secondary bacterial infections or sinusitis by today's clinicians. Thus, if a patient presents with a history of fever and chills followed by a severe cough, more helpful information might be found in the chapter on cough rather than in this chapter on influenza.
Illness warrants. If a particular case is not severe and the patient is under constitutional treatment, then it is rarely advisable to give homeopathic treatment. Rather, the patient can be supported with fluids, bedrest, echinacea, vitamin C, garlic, zinc lozenges, etc. When the patient is more ill or if the patient is not under constitutional homeopathic treatment, then we should prescribe acutely.
Wait until the picture is clear for a specific remedy. It is generally futile to simply give Aconite or Ferrum Phosphoricum because one cannot identify a more clear remedy. These routine prescriptions can obscure the case and lead to chasing one remedy after the next.
If the patient is not under homeopathic constitutional treatment then the Influenzinum nosode or Oscillococcinum can be used prophylactically (before the prodrome has even begun). Once an actual illness has begun it is better to await definite symptoms.
It is convenient to prescribe the remedy in a 30C potency three times per day with instructions to stop once there is marked improvement or to call if there is no improvement after 24 hours.
If there is no improvement after 24 hours, most likely the remedy is incorrect and the case should be retaken. If there is marked improvement followed by a relapse, the remedy should be tried in a 200C potency. Also, in the advent of a relapse, the case should be retaken and a complementary remedy should be considered.
Even if the patient is markedly improved following treatment, it is best to recommend he stay home for one additional day to avoid a relapse.
In patients receiving constitutional treatment, we should consider repeating the constitutional remedy rather than an acute remedy.
The patient should stay at bedrest for the duration of the illness.
Allow the patient to regulate his own temperature. For example, if he is too warm, do not force him to covere The organism knows its needs.
One exception to this rule is that all patients - thirsty or not - benefit from increased fluid intake.
At any stage we can support the patient with: Vitamin C (1000 mg. TID in adults). Echinacea (10 drops of tincture in juice TID). Garlic capsules. Zinc lozenges.
Aspirin or other antipyretics should be utilized only if the fever reaches a dangerous level (102° F for the elderly, 104° F for children). The fever promotes more rapid healing.
Children should never receive aspirin during influenza due to the risk of Reye's syndrome. If an antipyretic is necessary, use Tylenol.
If there are markedly painful symptoms, minor pain relievers do not generally antidote the constitutional remedy.
The use of Symmetrel for influenza type A does not seem to interfere with constitutional homeopathic treatment. For the newer antiviral drugs being used to shorten influenza, we have not enough experience to state their effect on constitutional treatment.
There is no rubric specific to influenza in Kent's repertory, however, there is a rubric in the Complete repertory under:
Rather than be limited by these rubrics it is more helpful to repertorize the symptoms of the patient - fever, chills, throat pain, etc.
Other rubrics related to influenza
Mind, Anguish, Choking, From, Influenza.
Mind, Delirium, Influenza, in.
Head Pain, Influenza, with.
Head Pain, Bursting, Influenza, during.
Eye, Pain, Sore, Influenza, during.
Kidneys, Inflammation, Influenza, after.
Kidneys, Inflammation, Suppurative, Influenza, after.
Female, Abortion, Influenza, during.
Cough, Influenza, during.
Cough, Influenza, after.
Chest, Inflammation, Bronchial tubes, Influenza, from.
Chest, Inflammation, Lungs, Influenza, with.
Chest, Weakness, Heart, Influenza, after.
Extremities, Heat, Influenza, with.
Extremities, Pain, Influenza, during.
Extremities, Pain, Lower limbs, Sciatica, Left, Influenza, after.
Extremities, Pain, Lower limbs, Sciatica, Influenza, after.
Sleep, Sleepiness, Influenza, in.
Sleep, Sleeplessness, Influenza, after.
Generalities, Pain, Bones, Malaria or influenza.
Generalities, Weakness, Influenza, after.
Influenza with gastroenteritis, vomiting and diarrhea.
Fever: High fever (102° to 104° F) following a two to three day prodrome.
Face is hot, craves open air yet body chilled.
Worse: Midnight or 1 AM. Noon or 1 PM.
Fever followed by chills and rigor.
Chills: Marked chills and rigors.
Worse: Eating or drinking. Before stool. Motion. Exertion.
General: Thirsty for small sips of water.
Tongue coated with a thin white film.
Marked restlessness punctuated by collapse or weakness.
Mental: Marked anxiety.
Patient fears he may die from the condition.
Needs company at all times.
Slowly progressing influenza with severe aching.
Fever: Heat with marked perspiration.
Chills: After anger.
Begins in fingertips and toes or rarely the lips.
General: Mainly warm and averse to warm rooms.
Tremendous thirst, wants large gulps at intervals.
Symptoms aggravated at 9 PM.
Worse: From the slightest motion. Jarring.
Restless feeling but intolerant of even slight motion.
Symptoms generally worse on right side, except the headache.
Local: Severe occipital or left-sided frontal headache.
Tongue coated white or dirty brown, especially in the center.
Chest and back pains.
Mental: Irritable, dull, averse to answering.
Desires to be left alone.
Delirious: Asks to be taken home. Talks of business.
Symptoms brought on by financial stresses.
Influenza with rapid onset and frighteningly high fever.
Fever: Fevers often as high as 105° F.
3 PM aggravation. Delirium.
Chill: Begins in arms or hands.
General: Face flushed red, pupils dilated, eyes glistening.
Worse: Jarring. Motion.
Hands and feet icy cold but face and body hot.
Craves: Lemons and lemonade.
Local: Often severe headache with throbbing and bounding pulses.
Right-sided headache, eye pain or sore throat.
Mental: Rapidly developing delirium or hallucinations.
Influenza with high fever and severe, unbearable aching.
Fever: High fever, generally over 102° F.
Chills: Chills begin at 9 AM.
Beginning in the lumbar region.
Chill with marked or even violent rigors.
Chills worse after drinking.
General: Chilly and sensitive to cold air.
Thirst for cold drinks (despite or even during chills).
Thirsty just before the chills come on.
Desires cold food and ice cream.
Perspiration is scanty.
General aggravation from 7 to 9 AM.
Restlessness with the pains; no amelioration from motion.
Terrible aching of muscles and especially bones.
Pains as if the bones would break open.
Local: Severe headache as fever peaks.
Heavy, aching head, lifts it from the pillow with his hands.
Much watery coryza during the influenza.
Nausea and vomiting; worse before the chill; worse motion.
Vomiting of bile between the heat and chill phase.
Excruciating low back pains.
Mental: Desperate and moaning with the pains.
Influenza with marked debility, weakness and sleepiness.
Fever: Slow, insidious onset of fever over one to three days.
Chill: Chills running up and down the back.
Chills alternate with flushes of heat.
Chills with fine tremors.
General: General aggravation at 10 AM.
Thirst is usually minimal.
Tremulous weakness and heaviness of the limbs, eyelids and head.
General sleepy feeling.
Local: Headache from occiput radiating to forehead.
Head heavy, hardly able to lift head from pillow.
Eyelids droopy or half shut.
Face flushed a dusky red color.
Yellow coating on tongue.
Mental: Low-spirited, dull, foggy.
(See below:Other Important Remedies)
Influenza with marked sensitivity to all stimuli.
Fever: High fevers with rapid onset - all in the first day.
Face burning with heat but must remain covered.
Chill: Horrible, intense chills and rigors.
Chills from uncovering or from slight motions of air under the cover as the patient moves.
General: Generally chilly and ameliorated by heat.
Sensitive to light, noise, odors; even the skin is oversensitive.
Desires warm food and drinks.
Local: Severe headaches.
Sore throat with a raw sensation.
Nausea, markedly ameliorated after vomiting.
Body aches relieved by warmth.
Mental: Over-excited and over-sensitive.
May be markedly irritable.
Sleepless and unable to drop his preoccupation with work.
Influenza with high fever (over 103° F) and aches.
Fever: High fevers which change rapidly.
Chills: Chills beginning between the scapulae.
Chills felt deep inside or in the bones.
General: Soreness; even the bed feels too hard.
Better: Heat. Warm bathing. Motion.
Marked restlessness during the fever.
Disparity between the pulse rate and the temperature. e.g. pulse rate is 140 with a mild fever or vice-versa.
Offensive perspiration or discharges.
Local: Muscle aches, better from motion.
Abnormal consciousness of the heart (Iber).
Mental: Feels as if scattered or double (Bapt).
Influenza with anguish, aching and restlessness.
Fever: Moderate to high fever, often originates from getting chilled.
Chill: Marked chills especially from uncovering or from drafts.
As if dashed with cold water.
General: Aching through the whole body.
Terrible stiffness which makes him want to stretch.
Pains ameliorated by nearly constant movements.
Chilly. Much relieved by warm baths, applications or drinks.
Thirsty for small sips of warm or rarely cold drinks.
Local: Red triangle on the tip of the tongue.
Herpes lesions on lips with the fever.
Better: Warm drinks. From constant swallowing.
Aching of muscles and joints, worse cold, better heat.
Mental: Anxiety and restlessness during influenza.
Other important remedies
Sudden onset of influenza after exposure or shock.
High fever (over 104° F) with flushed face, constricted pupils, restlessness, desire for cold drinks.
Excitement, anxiety and fear may be prominent.
(See chapter, "Fever")
High fever (over 102° F) with hot red face and strong desire to uncover.
Dry, unremitting heat, the face is congested or swollen; no sweat at all, the patient longs for a good sweat.
Dry heat alternating with sweats.
Severe pharyngitis with swelling of uvula, better from cold drinks.
All symptoms ameliorated by cold and cold applications.
Influenza with terrible aching of the whole body.
Cannot find a comfortable position; the bed feels too hard.
Heat of head but body cold (Ars, Bell).
Offensive breath and eructations - rotten egg odor.
Influenza with marked weakness on walking.
Shooting pleuritic pains during and lingering after influenza.
Worse: Lying, especially on left side. Motion of arms.
Better: Bending forward.
Short of breath on walking.
Advanced influenza with mental dullness or even stupor.
Patient falls asleep in mid-sentence.
Pharynx and tongue dry and coated or suppurating and very offensive though painless.
"Stomach flu" with putrid diarrhea and eructations.
Mastoiditis following influenza.
Soreness of the body, the bed feels too hard, can't get comfortable.
Cough and respiratory symptoms in influenza.
General: Sore and bruised over whole body.
Thirsty for cold drinks which ameliorate the fever.
Local: Dull pressive headache.
Lacrimation during influenza.
Acrid coryza. Hoarseness.
Scantily productive cough; feels he must always cough just a
little deeper to get relief.
Sore chest from the cough.
Involuntary urination from cough.
Stiff neck; "crick" in the neck during fever.
Influenza with combined lung and digestive symptoms.
General: Thirsty, mainly for warm drinks.
Aching of muscles, worse motion.
Local: Severe occipital headache or headache over the right eye.
Dry heat of the face
Dryness in nose, mouth and throat during influenza.
Tongue dry, brown and cracked.
Eructation and indigestion.
Dyspnea and tight chest, especially the right side.
Influenza with hypersensitivity during fever.
Especially the skin is exquisitely sensitive.
Marked headache, better from hard pressure.
Face deathly pale during the chill (or flushed red).
Marked debility with vertigo on attempting to rise from bed.
Bloating and diarrhea with influenza.
Typical fever begins with chill then thirst then heat then thirst again.
Influenza with exhausting sweats.
Watery coryza and nasal obstruction; later a purulent discharge.
Aphthae in the mouth and pharynx.
Heaviness or pulsation in the epigastrium.
Respiratory illness following influenza. Severe, irritated cough.
Influenza with marked fever lasting for days.
High fever, prostration but few localizing symptoms.
Right-sided symptoms - headache, chest pains, pharyngitis.
One of Borland's favorite remedies in influenza.
Especially as the illness turns into purulent sinusitis or bronchitis.
Pharyngitis with offensive breath, excess saliva, dirty tongue.
More to do with sequelae of influenza than the actual attack.
Great debility following influenza.
Tinnitus which lingers after a severe flu.
During the influenza, severe pharyngitis.
Retinitis following influenza.
Influenza after several days illness but the patient is sinking into secondary infections, bronchitis, etc.
Chilly but yet often worse heat; even slight heat causes sweats.
Sticky, unkept, greasy hair.
Tuberculinum bovinum kent
Influenza with cough and severe joint pains.
Afternoon exacerbation of fever, worsening illness, nightsweats.
Marked joint (especially leg) pains during the fever.
Mild, persistent cough and oppressed chest.
12/2/02 study group
PULSATILLA PRATENSIS (puls.)
- FORSAKEN FEELING, often expressed in the need for attention.
They do anything to fulfil this need.
- CONSOLATION >.
- EMOTIONAL, SYMPATHETIC, WEEPS EASILY.
- Often mild, but can be irritable.
- Changeable moods.
- Timidity, blushes easily.
- Irritability before menses.
- Fears: men (i.e. opposite sex), dark, heights, narrow places.
- Fixed ideas, dogma's, can be of a religious kind.
- CHANGEABLE SYMPTOMS.
- Hormonal disturbances.
- WARMBLOODED, < HEAT (but can be chilly).
- < SUN, WARM ROOM.
- < MENSES, PREGNANCY, MENOPAUSE, SUPPRESSED
- < Getting feet wet, twilight.
- > OPEN AIR.
- > COLD APPLICATIONS (Guai, Lac-c, Led, Sulph).
- > Slow motion (Ferr).
- WANDERING PAINS (Form, Kali-bi, Kali-s).
- Ailments from measles.
- Bland, yellow-greenish discharges.
FOOD AND DRINKS:
- Desire: Cheese, COLD FOOD, CREAMY THINGS, ICE CREAM,
(peanut) butter, hard-boiled eggs, sweets.
- Aversion: FATS AND RICH FOOD, butter, pork, warm food.
- < FATS AND RICH FOOD, ice-cream.
- < Menses, looking upward, on rising, after eating.
- Headache: < Sun, heat, hormonal changes, ice cream; > cold
- CONJUNCTIVITIS, allergies. Pain, itching > cold application
- Obstruction of lachrimal duct, yellow-greenish discharge (Kali-s, Sil).
- Styes (Staph).
- OTITIS, < NIGHT, heat.
- Hearing diminished from otitis.
- Mumps extending to epididymis or mammae (Piloc).
- Hayfever, < open air or > open air, < warm room, evening.
- Bland or yellow-greenish discharge.
- FLUSHES of heat. Blushes easily.
- One-sided perspiration.
- Dry, without thirst.
- Pain > cold water.
- Changeable stools.
- Diarrhea from ice cream.
- Recurrent cystitis.
- Urination involuntary, < pregnancy, coughing, walking, sitting.
- Prostatis, enlargement of prostate gland.
- ORCHITIS, EPIDIDYMITIS; from MUMPS or suppressed
< left side.
- High desire.
- DELAYED FIRST MENSES.
- MENSES EASILY SUPPRESSED, < GETTING FEET WET.
- MENSES PAINFUL, DELAYED, IRREGULAR, CHANGEABLE,
- Sexual desire increased.
- LABOR PAINS INEFFECTUAL, CHANGEABLE.
- Malpresentation of fetus.
- DYSPNEA, < Lying, evening and night, warm room, after
> Open air, sitting.
- DRY COUGH EVENING AND AT NIGHT, LOOSE IN THE
- Cough < lying down in the evening, disturbing sleep, warm room,
exertion; > open air.
- Galactorrhea, especially in women who do not nurse a child, during
menses or in girls.
- Swelling of the mammae before menses.
- SENSATION OF COLD WATER POURED DOWN THE BACK.
- WANDERING ARTHRITIS.
- PAINS, > COLD APPLICATIONS, SLOW MOTION; <
- HOT FEET, UNCOVER THEM AT NIGHT (cham, Med, Lyc,
- Pains in the heels.
- VARICES, < pregnancy, warmth; > cold.
- One-sided, esp. left side.
- Position: ON THE ABDOMEN OR ON THE BACK, ARMS
RAISED OVER THE HEAD OR ON THE ABDOMEN.
- Sleeplessness from activity of mind, SAME THOUGHTS
- Skin eruptions, itching < heat, night; > cold.
Compl: Calc, Fl-ac, Kali-s, Lyc, Sil, Tub.
DD: Arg-n, Calc, Calc-s, Kali-s, Lach, Med, Merc, Phos, Sil, Staph,
A well-preserved, fresh-looking maiden lady, fifty years of age, came under my observation at the beginning of 1895 for incipient cataract, which began when the periods began to wane. For six months patient took Pulsatilla q, seven drops in water at bedtime. September 3rd, 1895 - Distinct improvement in her vision; left side of tongue swollen. The same remedy was again ordered and persevered in, with pauses, and the report in June, 1896, was : “Oh! I see very much better.” The Change of Life in Women and the Ills and Ailings incident thereto cover such a wide range that one hardly knows how to keep to the text. But it has to be done if we are to progress from the standpoint of the past, which comes out in the following narration : I once heard of an old physician who had a very kind heart, and also no end of other good qualities, who was wont to comfort folks in this wise : When a young girl had any obstinate ailment that kind heartedness and talky-talky could not cure, and that opening medicines would not carry off or tonics tone away, he would assume a happy aspect and cheerfully tell the girl’s mother, “It will all come right when she becomes a woman.” This little oft-repeated fable usually quite satisfied the mothers. When young ladies were brought to him with ailments of divers kinds, their mothers were comforted with the cheerful assurance that the patients would be all right after they got married, which sometimes came off, but more frequently their ailments became even more troublesome thereafter. When middle-aged ladies consulted him, he was very apt to console them with even greater confidence, by suggesting that all their troubles would be over after the “change of life”. And so this world wagged on very comfortably, and in the end he found himself the possessor of an ample fortune and a title conferred upon him by his gracious Sovereign for his distinguished services to medical science. Certainly he dispensed much cheery comfort during his long life, and was never known to shock the profession with any notions contrary to accepted views, and whenever he felt that he might have shown a leaning towards any question at all fraught with danger to the comfort or dignity of the profession, he would suddenly pull up and remark, that such at least had been the privately-expressed opinion of his late lamented friend and master, that distinguished gynaecologist, Sir Jasper Pessary, than whom no more learned or more honourable physician ever adorned our profession – he feeling it his duty to give the late Sir Jasper credit for this opinion. Indeed, the question was no less delicate than important, involving as it did the highest interests of our glorious profession. The question was eventually brought before the Medical Society of London, and was thus formulated : - Could a pessary introduced by a qualified homoeopathic practitioner be removed by a qualified regular practitioner without loss of professional dignity? Needless to say the question was answered in the negative. Personally I rather rejoiced at the decision, for I could not help saying to myself and to a few intimates, that homoeopathic practitioners who (other than very exceptionally) make use of pessaries might once in a way put the homoeopathic medical materials before their pessaries. In my next Part I propose to take the Ills and Ailings of the Climaxis a little more connectedly, to the end that they may be recognised and either cured or avoided in the earlier phases of the woman’s life, for this is the trend of much of what I here bring forward. When I first began this little volume, I intended to write a much more elaborate treatise on in the subject, but it has fallen far short of my original plan.
Pulsatilla pratensis Feb. 8, 1890. A brown haired woman, gray eyes, amiable, fat and forty, complains of pains constantly jumping about the head, on forehead, vertex, occipital, sometimes in the face. Worse in the evening. Worse in the house; going out of doors stops the pain. Weeps with the pain. The head feels sore all over. Aversion powders Pulsatilla 2c B. and T., a powder every three hours. A permanent cure followed.
TALK TO MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS on December 11, 2002 NYC, by michele Galante, MD
(mbgmd): I want you to know that today, I am going to give you a no holds barred, bare naked truth of how a homeopathic physician sees the treatment of the Mentally Ill. When I was a young boy, my religion taught me that If I didn’t know something was wrong, then I would not be punished for it. But, once knowing that something was bad, you did it, then you were held accountable.
Today, if I succeed, you will no longer not know about the ability of Homeopathy to help you, your patients and your family. For I have a dilemma. I know that if I tell you straight out, you will not probably not believe me. For if you have never been exposed to this, it sounds incredible. The world is so jaded today, and there are so many sophisticated marketing techniques that we are bombarded with information. Most of that information is slanted, biased, and propaganda. So how can we know the truth? If you can sit back and let these principles absorb into your mind and being, then they might ring a bell. I will try to be as simple as possible.
Where there is life, there is hope. I hold a special place in my heart for the mental health caretakers of the world. You are the most patient and understanding and compassionate group in the medical field. You are also underrated. People don’t know the patience you exhibit with these poor souls.
I know that in your field, you see many incurable people. When I say incurable, I mean a person who is unable to get well and then is able to stay well without any medications or treatments for long periods of time. Most of you do not have any experience with curing. This is because you have not been given the opportunity to experience medical practices based on the law of curing, “the law of similars”.
Indeed in Homeopathy we recognize that there are many cases that ARE incurable, but not all. Many cases are curable or greatly improved with homeopathy.
I assume all of you are immersed in patient care in a conventional sense, using psychopharmacology and therapies of various kinds. I would venture a guess that at least 95% and probably more of your patients are on chronic medications of some sort.
These medications are designed and manufactured to reduce or stimulate chemicals, hormones, neurotransmitters, in one direction or another. The manufacturers call it treatment, we call this suppression.
The manufacturers of and purveyors of these chemicals have convinced many of you and your patients and their physicians that they have a “chemical imbalance”. That they are victims of this imbalance and that the only way these people can get relief is if we administer these medications to alter the chemistry of the patient with a chemical.
Ralph Bowen, MD was an American psychiatrist that practiced in 1951 in one of the American homeopathic asylums, one of the last ones. After I think 35 years of homeopathic practice, he summarizes his own practice in homeopathic psychiatry and also Hahnemann's position. After 35 years he says summarizing: "Let us remember that Hahnemann was the first medical writer to proclaim curability of mental illness. Hahnemann first differentiated organic from functional mental ailments. He recognized the development of irreversible change in chronic mental illness and advocated early treatment. He recognized the universality of mental illness and the influence of psychiatric implication in organic illness. He stressed the mental symptom in his Materia medica and left us a wealth of remedies that still work just as well as they did in his days. Let's use this heritage and learn skillfully to combine it with all the therapies now at our command to the benefit of mankind and the perpetuation of the law of similars".
Samuel Hahnemann, MD, the founder of Homepathy was the medical director of an Insane Asylum in the beginning of his career. The methods of diagnosis and treatments he used is based upon an action upon the disturbance in the “vital force” of the person. It is this spirit like vital force which is the imbalance, it is the correction of this which in turn affects the person and then the chemical imbalance. So in homeopathy we say “treat the person , not the disease”.
How does this vital force become imbalanced? This is a very difficult question to answer. For sure, we see many cases that have inherited their mental illness. Other cases are a result of poisonous influences like the famous “mad hatters” of old.
The hazards of occupational exposure to mercury have been known for centuries, amongst them the danger of the use of mercuric nitrate in hat making, to convert animal fur into felt. The Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland was a victim of occupational exposure to mercury vapor, and so were the hat makers in Danbury in Connecticut, USA, formerly an important centre of the industry. The intoxication was referred to as 'Mad Hatter's disease' or 'Danbury Shakes'. Clinical signs of mercury poisoning included personality changes and tremor, leading to the English expression 'mad as a hatter'. 'Mad Hatters' suffered from depression, lassitude, acute anxiety, and irrational fears. They also became nervous, timid, and shy. They blushed readily, were embarrassed in social situations, objected to being watched, and sought to avoid people. They felt a constant impulse to return home. They were easily upset, and were prone to agitation, irritability, anger, and aggressive behavior. There were word retrieval and articulation difficulties.
For years the dentists have convinced us that the amount of mercury in the silver amalgam fillings in our teeth, emit an acceptable amount of mercury.
The same drug manufacturers that create the drugs you use to treat patients are using Thimerosal in vaccines, which is highly suspicious in causing autism in susceptible children. We feel that many hundreds of thousands, if not millions of children have been damaged, not enough to cause the autism, but enough to cause attention deficit disorder, adhd, behavior and learning disorders and more.
But, I digress. It was the homeopaths who invented vaccines in the first place. However, they were not anything close to what is given today. Homeoprophylaxis is a part of homeopathy. A remedy is given when there is imminent danger of exposure. They are in micro dosage, given based upon the similimum of the disease, administered under the tongue.
HERINGS LAW - And how do we know there is a cure? Or improvement? By following Herings
Having prescribed for chronic disease, if you have given the true similimum, the symptoms are cured in accordance with Herings three laws of direction: From within outward, from above downward, and in the reverse order of their appearance. This is never the case in chronic disease untreated by homoeopathy, therefore when observed one can be sure that it is the remedy which is curing and that the correct remedy has been found. Herings laws are so important that we will give an example: A rheumatic fever case, where the joint symptoms has disappeared and the heart is affected receives the similimum. The heart improves, pains return in the shoulders and elbows, these disappear and the knees and ankles are involved, these in turn pass of and the patient entirely recovers. The symptoms went from within outward (heart to joints), from above downward (shoulders to knees), and in the reverse order of their appearance (heart to limbs instead of limbs to heart). If the symptoms do not go in this order the remedy is wrong. When a patient on a chronic remedy develops a different symptom, search back on your record or question your patient rigorously to determine whether this is the recurrence of an old symptoms ( a good sign, in which case no further remedy should be given). It it is an old symptom search the pathogenesis of the remedy given. If the symptom appears in the proving give nothing, if not, the choice of the remedy must be revised.
From Hahnemann’s “Organon of Medicine”:
In mental and emotional diseases resulting from corporeal maladies, which can only be cured by homoeopathic antipsoric medicine conjoined with carefully regulated mode of life, an appropriate psychical behaviour towards the patient on the part of those about him and of the physician must be scrupulously observed, by way of an auxiliary mental regimen. To furious mania we must oppose calm intrepidity and cool, firm resolution - to doleful, querulous lamentation, a mute display of commiseration in looks and gestures - to senseless chattering, a silence not wholly inattentive - to disgusting and abdominable conduct and to conversation of a similar character, total inattention. We must merely endeavour to prevent the destruction and injury of surrounding objects, without reproaching the patient for his acts, and everything must be arranged in such a way that the necessity for any corporeal punishments and tortures (1) whatever may be avoided. This is so much the more easily effected, because in the administration of the medicine - the only circumstance in which the employment of coercion could be justified - in the homoeopathic system the small doses of the appropriate medicine never offend the taste, and may consequently be given to the patient without his knowledge in his drinks, so that all compulsion is unnecessary
“In 1792 Hahnemann undertook the medical care of the celebrated Hanoverian statesman Klockenbring, who had gone mad, and had already been treated in the usual barbarous manner of the period in an asylum of the ordinary stamp, with no benefit, but the contrary. Hahnemann treated this dangerous lunatic on a non-restrain plan, without the use of chains or corporal punishment, which were in universal use at that period. His treatment was perfectly successful, and Klockenbring was restored to his family and friends perfectly cured. Hahnemann says in an account he gives of this case : -‘I never allow an insane person to be punished either by blows or by any other kind of corporal chastisement, because there is no punishment where there is no responsibility, and because these sufferers deserve only pity, and are always rendered worse by such rough treatment, and never improved.’”
Andre Saine, ND:
Mozart was contemporary to Hahnemann. In the movie Amadeus at the beginning and also at the end you see the asylum where Salieri was sent after cutting his throat. You would enter the hall; people would be tied to chains; many of the patients would howl and probably be nude and live in their own excrements. There were a lot of theories about mentally sick patients, but the most commonly accepted theory was that somebody mentally sick was possessed by some entities, by some spirits and so on, and you needed to chain these people and beat them to get the bad spirit out of them. Hahnemann was interested in hygiene, and soon after he did the discovery of China in 1790 -the first experimental proving in homeopathy- he founded an asylum in Germany in 1782. Now Hahnemann introduced treatment to the mentally sick patient with kindness. He introduced kindness in medicine.
Obituaries: Lucy Swanton Clark, MD College Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospitals (1967)
(3-15-1906 • 11-6-1991) She did an internship and residence at the homeopathic institutions Huron Road Hospital in Cleveland and Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital in NYC, respectively. She taught for several years at the AFH post-graduate school. “Lucy will long be remembered for her contributions to the education of other physicians . . . and for her kindness and her contributions to building peace on earth.”—JAIH 84:4, p. 119.
Edward Cranch, MD: (10-16-1851 • 5-20-1920) Prominent Erie, PA homeopath. An 1875 graduate of NY Med. Coll., Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital.
the following contains great introductory and general information about homeopathy from
H.L. Coulter: Homeopathic Science and Modern medicine: The Physics of Healing with Micro doses, a wonderful book from a great author
In every country the adoption of homoeopathy by a sizable number of practitioners has split the medical profession into two irreconcilable groups. In the United States the formation of the American Institute of Homoeopathy in 1844 was direct cause of the founding of the American medical Association two years later. For sixty years the AMA was vehemently hostile to the homoeopaths. Regardless of the fact that many of the latter had graduated from Harvard, Dartmouth, Pennsylvania, and other leading medical schools, they were refused admittance to the orthodox medical societies. Professional consultation with a homoeopath was punished by ostracism and expulsion from these same medical societies.
These measures were not sufficient, however, to arrest the growth of homoeopathy, and during the latter half of the nineteenth century it was extremely widespread in New England, the Middle Atlantic states, and the Midwest. Being identified with New England transcendentalism, the doctrine made little headway in the South until the homoeopathic record in the 1878 yellow fever epidemic led to the conversion of many patients and physicians. Homoeopathy also had strongholds in Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and California, and individual practitioners could be found in every state and territory.
In 1890 there were about 14,000 homoeopaths in the country, as against about 85,000 "regular" physicians. In the areas of homoeopathy's greatest popularity, however, the proportion of homoeopathic physicians to regular ones was higher-perhaps one to four or one to five. Furthermore, it was admitted on all sides that the social, intellectual, political, and business elite of every community patronized the homoeopaths. Hence the power of the school was greater than its relatively small number of practitioners would indicate.
The homoeopathic method made its first pronounced impact on American and European thought during the cholera epidemic of 1832 when, by the accounts of all observers, the homoeopaths had a far higher recovery rate than the regular physicians (in Paris, for example, during this epidemic, the price of the homoeopathic medicine for cholera increased 100-fold). Other epidemic diseases in which homoeopathic practitioners distinguished themselves were scarlet fever, dysentery, meningitis, and yellow fever. The nineteenth-century homoeopathic records are full of cases of the successful treatment of these diseases. Homoeopaths were particularly successful in the illnesses of children. Furthermore, the typical homoeopathic physician of those days was a small-town practitioner who spent his whole life with a relatively unchanging group of families for whom he was the only doctor. Is it to be seriously contemplated that he made his reputation and kept his patients decade after decade, treating successfully all the diseases of infants and farm animals as well as those of his normal clientele, merely cases in homoeopathic, as in orthodox, practice where the mere presence of the physician and an encouraging word were sufficient to bring about a recovery, anyone at all familiar with the history of nineteenth-century epidemiology will know that in thousands and millions of cases the only treatment was by the correct medicine. Unless the homoeopaths had had effective forms of medication, they could never have succeeded in making a place for themselves on the medical scene.
The doctrinal basis of homoeopathic practice
Homoeopathy differs from allopathy in possessing a precise set of principles governing diagnosis and treatment. The physician who does not follow these principles more or less accurately cannot be said to practice homoeopathy, even though he may on occasion employ homoeopathic medicines.
An American physician, Ian Stevenson, wrote in 1949 that "the basic laws of health and disease" have not yet been disclosed. Indeed, "the search for these laws has hardly begun. No discipline can claim a greater array of equipment by which its research is carried on, yet none is inferior to medicine in organizing its knowledge into coherent principles." 1
This critique of allopathic medicine is a useful point at which to commence an examination of homoeopathy-which is the mirror image of the above picture, having always insisted on the necessity of practicing medicine guided by a set of principles of disease and health. Homoeopathy has always adhered to a set of assumptions about the functioning of the human organism in health and disease, the nature of its relationship to the external world, and the effects of the medicines used to treat disease. Since these assumptions are quite precise, the rules of homoeopathic practice are also precise.
Thus the first point to be borne in mind is that homoeopathy consists of a body of principles forming a coherent whole. These principles have been tested in practice for about 180 years, and the homoeopathic physicians feel that their scientific validity has been conclusively demonstrated.
While the application of these principles has expanded somewhat from decade to decade with the entry of new medicinal substances into homoeopathic practice, the principles themselves have not altered.
The purpose of these principles, and of the rules of practice emanating from them, is to enable the physician to discover for each sick person the medicinal substance which most closely meets his needs.
Thus homoeopathy is a system of pharmacological medicine, a set of rules for administering specially prepared drugs to sick people and thereby making them well. While surgery, diet, exercise, etc. are very important for health and are often recommended by the homoeopathic physician, they have nothing to do with the homoeopathic doctrine itself which is a set of rules for administering drugs.
Strict adherence to these rules enables the conscientious and painstaking physician to prescribe for each patient the precise medicine which will act curatively in his case.
Homoeopathy views the living organism as unceasingly reaching to its environment, attempting to ward off danger and repair damage. Thus, what is called "sickness" actually represents the organism's striving after health. The patient's symptoms are not the impact of some morbific stimulus on his organism but are the reaction of the organism to the morbific stimulus.
One corollary of this assumption is that all illness is "general"-representing the curative effort of the whole body. Homoeopathy does not recognize the existence of "local" illness. It does not admit that several such "local" illness can coexist in the body. Illness is always "general", and the patient can never suffer from more than one illness at a time, however many local manifestations this one illness may yield.
A second corollary is that the symptoms, however painful and undesirable, are beneficial phenomena, since they indicate the pathway taken by the organism in its attempt to restore health.
A third corollary is that the symptoms are more important for diagnosis and treatment than are the structural or material alterations in the organism. This is because symptoms are chronologically prior to structural changes and lead the way to the structural changes.
Hence the homoeopathic physician sees his task as promoting the curative effort of the organism indicated by the symptoms. the homoeopathic therapeutic doctrine shows him how to assist the organism in this self-healing effort. It is a set of rules enabling him to select the medicine which, when administered to the sick person, will stimulate his self-healing effort along the lines already adopted.
The first of these rules is that the medicine must be prescribed according to the "law of similars"-meaning that the appropriate remedy for each sick person is the substance which would give rise to precisely his set of symptoms if administered to a healthy person.
The concept of treating with "similars" is very ancient and was resurrected in the early nineteenth century by Edward Jenner's use of cowpox vaccination as a preventive of smallpox. The "similar" cowpox was seen to confer immunity against smallpox. Later in the century Pasteur developed a vaccine against rabies which was made from the dried spinal cords of rabbits dead of rabies-thus, also a "similar". In the twentieth century immunization techniques have been developed for yellow fever, plague, poliomyelitis, and other diseases: the principle of treatment by "similars" received extensive application.
In the above instances the "similarity" is between the causal agents of the diseases: rabies in rabbits, rabies in man; cowpox and smallpox; polio in monkeys, polio in man, etc. Homoeopathy investigated this interpretation of "similarity" in the 1830's but rejected it in favor of similarity, not of cause, but of symptom.
To clarify, the powers of medicines are discovered in the homoeopathic school by administering these medicines in very small quantities to healthy persons for an extended period of time-weeks or months. This is called "proving" the medicine, from the German word, Pruefung, meaning "test" or "trial". Every substance in the world-animal, vegetable, or mineral-produces its own specific and peculiar set of symptoms when administered systematically to healthy persons. The literature of the homoeopathic school consists of such collections of the symptoms of about 1500 medicines.
Hahnemann was led to his discovery of the rules f homoeopathy by his curiosity about the reason for the curative effect of quinine in malaria. He experimented on himself, taking quinine in moderate doses for a period of time, and found that he manifested the typical symptoms of an attack of malaria. From this he concluded that quinine is curative in malaria through its ability to generate the typical symptoms of this disease.
The homoeopathic medicines include many substances used traditionally in Western medicine-Belladonna, Aconitum napellus, Colchicum, Camphor, Veratrum, Mercury, Sulphur, Digitalis, Nitroglycerine, Arsenic, Aurum (gold), Plumbum (lead), Secale cornutum (ergot), etc. (many of which are still in use today), but to them have been added hundreds more, including some-such as silica or sodium chloride (table salt)-which have not been regarded by allopathy as possessing therapeutic powers.
The provings of these substances yield groups of symptoms which define precisely how the healthy organism reacts to the specific stimulus represented by each such substance. And these proving-symptoms thereby indicate precisely how the given substance is to be used for treatment. Since the symptoms of the sick person represent his curative reaction to the morbific stimulus, the most effective way to cure him will necessarily be through prescribing the substance which intensifies these curative symptoms.
When confronted with a sick person, therefore, the homoeopathic physician first undertakes to elicit from him all his symptoms. This is a lengthy and complex process, requiring more time and effort than the anamnesis performed by the non-homoeopathic physician. He will inquire into the patient's past history, and perhaps the medical history of his parents and siblings, to obtain a full picture of his medical background.
Addendum II, written by James Tyler Kent (1849-1916)-the greatest American-born homoeopathic physician, shows how this questioning is done. While a physician will not pose all these questions in any one case, kent's exposition reveals the detail which homoeopathy demands if a comprehensive picture of the patient's ailments is to be obtained.
Then the physician investigates the literature of the provings to ascertain precisely which substance produces a set of symptoms identical with that of the patient. This is the indicated remedy because it will intensify the incipient healing process. The patient's symptoms represent the commencement of this healing process, and the medicine generating these symptoms is the one which helps carry through the healing process to cure (or to the next stage of recovery).
The use of one single remedy at a time is preferred, and considered better homoeopathy. By finding the one remedy whose symptoms match the totality of the patient's symptoms, the homoeopathic physician is prescribing the one remedy which meets the needs of the patient's whole organism. This makes homoeopathy a holistic mode of practice.
Although the homoeopathic physician is guided by the patient's symptoms, he is not prescribing "symptomatically". He treats, not the patient's symptoms, but his whole organism-whose needs are made manifest through the totality of his symptoms.
The homoeopathic physician must use the "minimum dose". The reason for this rule is easy to understand. When medicines are employed according to the principle of similars, a large dose will tend to exacerbate the patient's existing symptom-pattern. Only a "minimum dose" will effect cure without a severe aggravation of the patient's symptoms.
Thus it is customary in homoeopathy to talk of Hahnemann's three rules of prescribing: (1) strict adherence to the law of similars, (2) the single remedy, and (3) the minimum dose.
It must be confessed, however, that the meaning of "minimum" in this context is ambiguous in view of the homoeopathic principle that medicines become more powerful with greater dilution. Hahnemann himself lowered his doses to thousandths and millionths of a grain, causing allopathic physicians in the nineteenth century to scoff at homoeopathy's supposed use of placebos. It was only with the twentieth century's discovery of hormones and other substances which are also effective in microscopically small quantities that allopathic physicians have to some extent ceased deriding the homoeopathic "high dilutions". (Addendum I presents the typical levels of dilution employed in homoeopathic pharmacology).
Hahnemann claimed that these high dilutions are effective because the sick person is ultra-sensitive to the action of the similar remedy. he wrote, as early as 1810, that "there are patients whose impressionability, compared to that of unsusceptible ones, is in the ration of 1000 to 1. "
This ultra-sensitivity of the sick person to the "similar", together with the stimulant effect of the similar remedy on the reactive process in the organism, means that the correct homoeopathic prescription is often followed by a momentary aggravation of the symptoms.
The homoeopathic use of the small dose may be viewed from a different angle. Hahnemann discovered that any medicinal substance gives rise initially to a set of "primary" symptoms, followed in time by a different set of "secondary" symptoms more or less the "opposite" of the "primary" symptoms. If a large dose is used, the "primary" symptoms are prominent, and the "secondary" ones (representing the reaction of the organism) are weak. If the dose is small, the "primary" symptoms are less apparent, and only the "secondary" ones appear. Thus it is customary to speak of the "opposite" effects of large and small doses.
In the light of this discussion, the homoeopathic small dose is seen to be the one which, without initially depressing the organism, stimulates its reactive healing power.
The only major addition to Hahnemann's original doctrine is known as Hering's Law in honor of its discoverer, Constantine Hering (1800-1880) of Philadelphia-the intellectual leader of the nineteenth-century American homoeopathic school.
Hering's Law holds that as a disease passes from a acute to a chronic form the symptoms move from the surface of the body to the interior, from the lower part of the body to the upper, and from the less vital organs to the more vital. This is also true, in part, for the movement of symptoms in acute disease. Under correct homoeopathic treatment this movement is reversed, and the symptoms will then move from the more vital organs to the less vital, from the upper part of the body to the lower, and from the interior to the skin. Furthermore, they will disappear in the reverse order of their appearance.
An important corollary of Hering's Law, and also of the homoeopathic principle that all illness is general, is that so-called "mental" illness is only an extreme form of a general morbific process-one whose symptoms have penetrated: (1) deep inside the body, (2) high up in the body, and (3) to one of the most vital organs, the brain. All disease processes have a mental aspect (mental symptoms) as well as a somatic one. So-called "mental" illness is only a morbific process in which the mental aspects are more prominent than the somatic ones. Since the homoeopathic provings all yield mental as well as somatic symptoms, "mental" illnesses are treated in homoeopathy according to the same method that is used to treat "physical" illness.
Another very important corollary of Hering's law is that skin eruptions and skin diseases are to be regarded as very positive manifestations, signs of passage of the illness from the inside of the body to the outside. Hence, topical applications are never used in homoeopathy for the treatment of so-called "skin diseases", as such applications are considered to acct suppressively, rooting the illness into the organism and causing it to assume a chronic form.
Hering's Law is extremely important for homoeopathic practice since it outlines the natural course which must be followed by morbific and curative process. As Hering himself stated: "Only such patients remain well and are really cured who have been rid of their symptoms in the reverse order of their development." The physician is not justified in attempting short cuts. He must respect the stages of illness. He can only prescribe on the basis of the symptoms presenting during the given stage, and he hopes that the prescribed remedy will move the disease in the direction of cure.
It follows that failure to respect the natural process of illness and recovery will cause harm to the patient. Specifically, the homoeopathic school has found from experience that allopathic treatment of acute illness may engraft on the patient an incurable chronic illness.
This homoeopathic interpretation of chronic disease has definite implications for the attitude to be taken to the epidemic of chronic disease in modern industrial societies.
From the preceding discussion we may isolate eight elements of homoeopathic doctrine in support of which evidence may be marshaled from the non-homoeopathic literature:
-The reactivity of the organism to external stimuli; disease as an expression of the adaptive effort of the whole organism; priority of symptomatic changes over structural or pathological changes.
-The biphasal action of medicines.
-Ultra-sensitivity of the organism to the similar medicine; aggravation.
-The infinitesimal dose; homoeopathic rejection of the mono-tonicity rule.
-The single remedy.
-The law of similars.
-Hering's Law and chronic disease.
These eight elements of doctrine are discussed in the eight sections which follow.
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